The investigation of the placebo effect has been flourishing in human laboratory settings more than in animal research. These results are also consistent with animal and human studies 50 — Vasopressin enhanced the effect of the placebo analgesic treatment in women but not in men, relative to the no treatment, oxytocin, and saline groups. These effects depend on an interaction between modulatory central nervous systems and peripheral pain mechanisms. In dose-extending placebo studies, participants receive a repetitive administration of the medication e. The ketorolac-like effect was reversed by the cannabinoid type 1 receptor antagonist rimonabant, which suggests that the endogenous cannabinoid system can be trained to induce placebo effects. In female animals, it promotes affiliative behaviors via actions in the septum and ventral pallidum The generated placebo effects influence responses to pharmacological, integrative, psychological, and surgical interventions
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